During the Twentieth Century co-incidentally, momentous events occurred in the ninth year of six decades. Events in preceding years contributed to these turning points, and outcomes following these ‘triggers’ or crises, had profound impact on shaping societies throughout the world. We continue to grapple with the economic, political and social ramifications of these events today.
The six ‘nines’ are:
1919 Assassination of the Romanovs and the Russian Revolution; the rise of socialism; Peace Treaties at the end of The Great War and key players; the League of Nations; Kemal Ataturk leads the Turkish War of Independence, Einstein announces his Theory of Relativity; Spanish Flu pandemic; devolution of political power and the enfranchisement of some women, explosion of creativity in all art forms; the rise of the KKK; the ‘Reds V the Whites” civil war; starvation in the USSR
1929 The Jazz Age and prohibition; Black Tuesday – The Stock Market Crash on Wall Street, New York leading to the Great Depression; Roosevelt’s ‘New Deal’ and ‘Fireside Chats’, purges (and implications thereof) in USSR; upheaval in China; Adolf Hitler and the emergence of the Nazi party; movement for Indian independence gaining strength.
1939 The Abdication Crisis; Spanish Civil War; Spies; Stalin’s purges; Japan, Manchukuo and war with China; Second World War declared September 3; Dunkirk and Churchill, A-Bomb project commences; US involvement and later Pearl Harbour; war in China; ‘sussos’ and ‘reffos’
1949 Indian independence and partition; Chinese Communist Forces led by Mao Zedong defeat the Nationalist forces led by Chiang Kai-Shek; Taiwan (Formosa); South and North Korea; Japan occupied; the US, Soviet Union and the Korean War; NATO formed; German Federal Republic (West Germany) established, and Apartheid institutionalised in South Africa
1969 Race Riots and Voting Acts mid 60s; Richard Nixon succeeds Lyndon Baines Johnson; withdrawal of some troops from Vietnam and the Mai Lai Massacre; Woodstock and the end of the Hippy era; the Moon Landing; Abbey Road’; Boeing 747 and Concorde
1989 Lech Walesa and Solidarity, Ghobechov and Reagan, glasnost, perestroika and the fall of the Berlin Wall; the collapse of the USSR and the end of the Cold War; George H.W Bush sworn in as 41st president; USA the only superpower; the Velvet Revolution; Tiananmen Square Massacre; Exxon Valdez
Decisions made and actions taken during these years critically affected the course of world history in the twentieth century, and into the twenty-first. Events leading to and immediately following these Six x Nine key dates will be examined and the profound impact these years had on shaping world history.
Pam Chessell has been teaching for what feels like forever. She’s taught in big schools and small schools, rural schools and city schools. Government and independent, schools for boys, schools for girls.; even co-educational. For eighteen years Pam was the principal on an independent girls’ school.
You could say, she’s been heavily involved in education for the longest of times.
She was especially stimulated by her work as a member of the English Methods Staff in the Education Faculty at Monash University. She was commissioned to write the history for the centenary of her former school.
When her children were young, Pam took many VCE and sessional classes with the CAE. She relished the opportunities provided to design and implement courses and curriculum design became a major professional interest. During those years, she wrote many textbooks, mostly for English studies at all levels.
In retirement she has maintained her interest in course design and especially in history; exploring subjects such as how past events and people have shaped our present world.